Volume 19, Issues 1—5 , 1 January , Pages Ice core evidence for climate change in the Tropics: Thompson Show more https: Moreover, the variability of these tropical systems and particularly that of the tropical hydrological system in response to regional and global climate forcing are not well understood. Fortunately, ice core records are also available from selected high altitude, low and mid-latitude ice caps. The ice core studies described here were undertaken as part of a long-term program to acquire the global-scale, high-resolution climatic and environmental history essential for understanding more fully the linkages between the low and the high latitudes. The new tropical ice core records raise additional questions about our understanding of the role of the tropics in global climate.
The Age of the Earth
The Age of the Earth Part 4: This is the fourth in a series of blog articles that deal with the age of the Earth from a Christian perspective. I am a Christian geologist who has been working in this field of science for 38 years. I take the Bible as the accurate inspired word of God, as I have done since my youth. As explained in a prior introductory blog, I believe the Earth is considerably older than years and I do not believe that this conflicts with Scripture.
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In the sciences, it is important to distinguish between precision and accuracy. If we use the analogue of a clock we can investigate this further. Your wrist watch may measure time with a precision of one second. A stop watch may time your race with a precision of one hundredth of a second. However, if the clocks change and you forget to reset your wrist watch, then you have a very precise time but it is not very accurate — you will be an hour early or late for all of your meetings!
Scientists want measurements that are both accurate and precise… but it can be difficult to tell sometimes whether very precise measurements are actually accurate without an independent reference age see top right image versus bottom right image. Accurate measurements fall in the bulls eye. Precise measurements are tightly clustered.
The Vostok Ice Core: Temperature, CO2 and CH4
By Eryn Brown Jul 10, 3: A team reported Wednesday that it had used such ice cores to eliminate discrepancies in scientists’ understanding of the timing of volcanic eruptions — and subsequent climate effects — over the last 2, years. Olivia Maselli A new method of analyzing ice cores has allowed scientists to more precisely determine when volcanic eruptions occurred on Earth over the last 2, years. A multidisciplinary team of scientists melted down giant ice cores drilled from sites in Greenland and Antarctica and painstakingly analyzed sulfate deposits in the ice as they went.
They were able to assign more accurate dates to eruptions, including two particularly dramatic ones in the 6th century that triggered lower temperatures and possibly contributed to plagues, famines and other woes at the dawn of the Middle Ages. Advertisement The work, published this week in the journal Nature , reinforces scientists’ understanding of how volcanoes influence variations in climate and confirms that they have a significant cooling effect, some experts said.
Ice cores are one of the most effective, though not the only, methods of recreating long term records of temperature and atmospheric gases. Particularly in the polar region, but also at high elevations elsewhere, snow falls on an annual cycle and remains permanently.
It made sense to worry that carbon dioxide did influence temperature. But by new data came in and it was clear that carbon lagged behind temperature. The link was back to front. After temperatures rise, on average it takes years before carbon starts to move. The extraordinary thing is that the lag is well accepted by climatologists, yet virtually unknown outside these circles. The fact that temperature leads is not controversial.
What follows is the complete set from , years to 5, years before the present. What really matters here are the turning points, not the absolute levels. The carbon data is unfortunately far less detailed than the temperature data. Beware of making conclusions about turning points or lags when only one single point may be involved. The graph which illustrates the lag the best, and also has the most carbon data is , , years ago.
The bottom line is that rising temperatures cause carbon levels to rise.
The project is best known for producing records of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane with high time resolution and dating accuracy. This required drilling on an ice flow divide. This required drilling in West Antarctica which has higher ice accumulation rates than East Antarctica. Camp logistics were done by Raytheon polar services.
Precision and accuracy in chronostratigraphy is very important when considering the age of moraines and other features in glacial geology!
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Ice core basics
Noah’s Ark, how to build one! The recorded instructions to Noah for the plans of the ark were as follows: Yes, our view of the ark Noah built is rather fuzzy and many artists have provided various concepts of how Noah’s ark could have been constructed. But, from what little we know, how could an early man such as Noah having very little technology have constructed such a large floating structure?
We have already mentioned dendrochronology (tree ring dating) above. Dendrochronology is only the tip of the iceberg in terms of non-radiometric dating methods. Here we will look briefly at some other non-radiometric dating techniques. Ice Cores.
Warming threatens penguin food supply , Science Online, 12 Apr Ice melt Ice cores taken from two regions of the Antarctic give a mixed story on the impact of human-induced climate change on the icy continent. Summer ice melting on the Antarctic Peninsula is at its highest in years, report scientists in today’s Nature Geoscience journal. But an analysis of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet stretching back years indicates “rapid ice loss may not be all that unusual” in that area of the continent, report another group of scientists in the same journal.
The studies add to the international effort to better understand the causes of environmental change in Antarctica and to make more accurate projections about the direct and indirect contribution of Antarctica’s ice shelves and glaciers to global sea level rise. Abram says the core shows summer ice melting has increased fold in the past years with the most rapid increase occurring in the past 50 years.
The coolest conditions and lowest melt at the ice core site occurred from about AD to when mean temperatures were about 1. While temperatures have gradually warmed since then “the melt record actually doesn’t show large changes in melt until we get to the warming over the past 50 years”, she adds. Today about 5 per cent of annual snowfall melts each year, Abram says. Critically, the record shows a “non-linear relationship” between ice melt and climate warming, she says.
This has important implications for ice instability and sea level rise in a warming climate. She says while warming in this area can be attributed at least partly to human-induced climate change and the resultant strengthening of westerly winds, changes to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet cannot be so easily linked to this. His team, which included Dr Ailie Gallant, from Monash University , analysed a new ice core from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide that goes back years, along with a number of ice cores dating back years.
The divide is the highest point on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and marks the division where ice “flows” toward either the Weddell or Ross seas. Gallant says their work focused on the isotope, oxygen 18; higher levels of oxygen 18 indicate higher air temperatures.
What are Ice Cores?
First, some preliminary remarks are given: It is the local or global mean height of sea level. How is MSL defined: This definition averages out tidal highs and lows caused by the changing effects of the gravitational forces from the moon and sun”. Mean Sea Level cannot be measured directly.
Radiocarbon Dating and the Bible Is carbon dating (or radiocarbon dating) always reliable and beyond question? and ice cores, carbon dating works assuming: 1. We can measure the ratio very accurately. 2. We know the ways an organism’s ratio is altered. 3. but it is a strong witness to the accuracy and reliability of the Bible. It.
History[ edit ] The Greek botanist Theophrastus ca. In , the German-American Jacob Kuechler — used crossdating to examine oaks Quercus stellata in order to study the record of climate in western Texas. Kapteyn — was using crossdating to reconstruct the climates of the Netherlands and Germany. Douglass sought to better understand cycles of sunspot activity and reasoned that changes in solar activity would affect climate patterns on earth, which would subsequently be recorded by tree-ring growth patterns i.
Wood Diagram of secondary growth in a tree showing idealised vertical and horizontal sections. A new layer of wood is added in each growing season, thickening the stem, existing branches and roots, to form a growth ring. Horizontal cross sections cut through the trunk of a tree can reveal growth rings, also referred to as tree rings or annual rings.
Growth rings result from new growth in the vascular cambium , a layer of cells near the bark that botanists classify as a lateral meristem ; this growth in diameter is known as secondary growth. Visible rings result from the change in growth speed through the seasons of the year; thus, critical for the title method, one ring generally marks the passage of one year in the life of the tree.